Cultural China Tour: Mountains and Rivers Bloodline | Xiongguan Mandao


Loushanguan, which borders Bashu to the north and Guizhou and Guangxi to the south, is the throat of northern Guizhou and an important gateway on the Sichuan Guizhou transportation artery. Loushanguan is famous worldwide for its great victory. The majestic pass is as iron as the road, and now we are stepping from the beginning. Nearly a hundred years have passed, and the poetry of great men still evokes boundless passion. Loushanguan has transcended geographical concepts and become a symbol, integrating the spiritual bloodline of generations of fighters. Loushanguan stands an eternal monument! Today, walking on the path of progress, we look back at Loushanguan because we deeply respect our revolutionary predecessors and the great revolutionary spirit in our hearts; We praise Loushan Pass because it gives us confidence and strength, inspires us to face difficult challenges, dares to cross more Loushan Passes, and continues to write new victories. ——Editor Lou Shan Guan Da Jie (Oil Painted Cloth, Collection of the Chinese Art Museum) Shen Yaoyi wrote: "I have stood at the top of the Da Lou Mountains more than once, overlooking this towering mountain range.". Amidst these thousands of mountains and valleys, the valley is deep and steep, like knives and axes cutting straight into the clouds. This is the watershed between Chishui River and Wujiang River, and also the boundary between the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and Sichuan Basin. On the mountaintop, there is a majestic pass - the Sunzi Mountain Pass at an altitude of 1788.4 meters, which is the famous Loushan Pass. It borders Bashu to the north and Guizhou and Guangxi to the south. It is known as the throat of the southwest and a key transportation hub between Sichuan and Guizhou, and has been a battleground for military strategists since ancient times. After passing this danger, whether heading north or south, one can drive straight into it, and there will be no such magnificent pass again. During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, the area around Loushanguan belonged to the ancient Yelang; In the late Warring States period, it belonged to the sphere of influence of the State of Chu. In 316 BC, there was a verbal battle between the strategist Zhang Yi and the military strategist Sima Cuo in the main hall of King Huiwen of Qin. Zhang Yi advocated attacking South Korea in order to achieve the strategy of "taking control of the emperor to dominate the world.". Sima Cuo advocated a southward expedition against Shu to balance the Chu state, which not only expanded the territory of Qin, but also avoided the moral and military risks associated with attacking South Korea. King Huiwen of Qin ultimately adopted Sima Cuo's strategy, as the state of Chu was his major concern. Sima Cuo captured the state of Shu and then attacked the state of Ba (now in the Chongqing area), rising upstream from the Wujiang River, occupying the territory of Yelang Ancient State (now in Tongzi County, Zunyi), guarding the pass of Loushan Pass, occupying Zangke Ancient State (now in Guiyang area), and Kelan Ancient State (now in Huangping County, Guizhou area), thus cutting off the connection between Chu and Gudian State (now in Kunming area), and laying a favorable situation for Qin to encircle Chu from the southwest and achieve unification in the future. This magnificent pass is once again associated with a historical node during the reign of Emperor Xizong of Tang Dynasty. At that time, Loushanguan was also called Gaoyanzi, also known as Heishenya. Ban Gu, a historian of the Eastern Han Dynasty, wrote "Geographical Records" in the Book of Han, calling Loushan "Bulang Mountain"; According to Zheng Zhen, a famous scholar from Zunyi during the late Qing Dynasty, "Bulang Mountain" refers to Dalou Mountain. In the year 876 AD, Tang Xizong, who was extremely anxious, finally received two good news: first, Wang Xianzhi and Huang Chao had an internal conflict, dividing their troops and fleeing, and the Ministry of War claimed that "it was no longer a major disaster"; Secondly, General Yang Duan captured Heishenya and directly attacked Bozhou (now Zunyi), then defeated the Nanzhao army and took control of Bozhou, dispatching Lou Dianbang and Liang Zongli to guard Heishenya. It is said that the name "Loushanguan" is related to Lou and Liang. Lou and Liang respectively gave birth to sons Lou Shan and Liang Guan, inheriting their father's official positions. During the period of guarding Heishenya, I got along well with the local people. The common people renamed "Heishenya" as "Loushan Liangguan", abbreviated as "Loushan Pass". In the long river of history, which is constantly changing, people gradually mistake it for "Loushan Pass". Later, Yang Duan was appointed as the chieftain of Bozhou by Emperor Xizong of Tang, and the Yang family ruled in Bozhou for 29 generations and 725 years. They absorbed advanced culture from the Central Plains, politically surrendered to the Central Dynasty, and launched several military campaigns to defend the Central Dynasty. This situation continued until the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty. Yang Yinglong, the 29th generation grandson of Yang Duan and the chieftain of Bozhou, carried out large-scale construction in Hailongtun, built a camp, and also "dug trenches" at Loushanguan to defend against the central dynasty. From the Tang Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty, the Yang family maintained a good relationship with the Central Plains dynasty through generations of Bozhou chieftains. Yang Yinglong's rebellion really surprised the Ming dynasty. Emperor Wanli was a famous negligent emperor in history, but during his reign, the Ming Dynasty had the "Three Great Expeditions of Wanli". The first time was the Battle of Ningxia, which quelled the Mongol rebellion; The second battle was the Korean War, which dealt a decisive blow to the invasion of Korea by Japanese ruler Toyotomi Hideyoshi and achieved a decisive victory; The third time was the Battle of Pingbo, which quelled the rebellion of local chieftain Yang Yinglong. In the spring of 1593, a fierce battle broke out at Loushan Pass. The two sides in the battle were Wang Zhihan and Yang Yinglong's Bozhou Army dispatched by the Ming court. As a result, Wang Zhihan suffered casualties and Yang Yinglong achieved a great victory. At that time, not long after the end of the Ningxia War, the Korean battlefield was in full swing, and the Ming court had no time to spare, with insufficient troops. In the second year, Sichuan General Guo Cheng and General Liu Chengsi launched a campaign to suppress Yang Yinglong, and the two armies engaged in another fierce battle at Loushanguan. Yang Yinglong, who occupied the advantageous territory, once again achieved victory and took advantage of the victory to attack Sichuan, washing away Qijiang with blood and causing temporary arrogance and recklessness. In 1599 AD, after winning the Battle of Korea, the Ming court launched another campaign against Yang Yinglong, led by Li Hualong, the Right Assistant Minister of the Ministry of War in the three provinces of Sichuan, Hubei, and Guizhou. He is not only a poet, but also a military strategist and politician. He was well aware of the dangers of Loushan Pass and mobilized 240000 troops to attack Bozhou in eight routes. Among them, Liu Ying was the most courageous along the way. Liu Ying, known as Liu Dadao, was a fierce general in the late Ming Dynasty. In the Battle of Korea, he defeated the Japanese generals, Governor Kobayashi and Kuroda Nagamasa, and they were defeated. Soldiers are of great value and speed, and Liu Dadao led his troops to arrive at Loushan Pass first. However, facing such a magnificent pass, even a fierce general like Liu Ying can only look up at Loushan Pass and sigh endlessly. Xiongguan, it's really a one man pass, ten thousand men cannot open it. Hard won't work, Liu Ying decided to take it wisely. Liu Ying led a team to climb vines and rocks, launched a surprise attack on Loushanguan, seized the natural moat of Bozhou, and ultimately achieved a crucial victory in the Battle of Pingbo. After Pingbo, Loushan Pass was once renamed "Taiping Pass". In the Qing Dynasty, peasant uprisings surged in this area, and Loushanguan became a focal point of competition among various factions. In 1647 AD, Li Dingguo and Sun Kewang led a peasant uprising and defeated the Qing army, occupying Loushanguan. In 1854, Yang Longxi led a peasant uprising in Jiuba, Tongzi, and captured the county town of Tongzi, occupying Loushanguan and directly attacking Zunyi. In 1859, the peasant uprising army, known as the Red Army, captured Loushanguan. In 1862 AD, the Wing King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Shi Dakai, belonged to the Zeng Guangyi tribe, and in order to support the uprisings of various ethnic groups in Guizhou, they captured Loushanguan... In the long history of vicissitudes, although Loushanguan is located in a corner of the Dalu Mountains and is a battleground for military strategists, its influence is limited as it is located in the southwestern hinterland. Such regional characteristics once made it impossible to compare with famous passes such as Shanhaiguan, Jiayuguan, and Yumen Pass. Until 1935, Loushanguan reached an important milestone and became famous from then on. The tide of the times has finally pushed Loushan Pass to the forefront of history. After the Battle of Xiangjiang, the Central Red Army suffered unprecedented losses. At a critical moment, Mao Zedong strongly advocated abandoning the original plan of meeting with the Second and Sixth Red Army Corps and moving forward towards Guizhou, where the enemy's forces were relatively weak, in order to take the initiative and save the situation. The Red Army turned from the channel to Liping, Guizhou, and held the Liping Conference and Monkey Field Conference. They quickly broke through the natural danger of the Wujiang River, captured Zunyi, and left hundreds of thousands of enemy troops besieged and blocked in the areas east and south of the Wujiang River. This gave the exhausted Red Army precious short rest time, and provided the necessary conditions for the CPC to hold the Zunyi Conference that changed the historical destiny of the Chinese revolution. The Zunyi Conference was a crucial turning point in the history of our party. It saved the party, the Red Army, and the Chinese revolution at the most critical moment of the Chinese revolution. The successful convening of this meeting is closely related to the victory achieved by the Red Army at Loushanguan. The Red Army fought two battles at Loushan Pass. In January 1935, the Red Army captured Zunyi, and a part of the Red First Army Corps quickly advanced northward, capturing Loushanguan for the first time, creating favorable conditions for the convening of the Zunyi Conference. From the process and results of this battle, it can be seen that the enemy Guizhou army has no combat capability, and the main force of the Sichuan army has not had time to react. The intensity of the battle is far less intense than the Battle of Daoba on the banks of the Wujiang River at the same time. The Red Army's second attack on Loushan Pass was particularly fierce. At that time, the Red Army had already crossed the Chishui River twice, giving Chiang Kai shek a "rebound gun". Loushan Pass was a strategic point of contention between the enemy and us. On February 25, 1935, the Red Third Army, led by its commander Peng Dehuai, advanced towards Loushan Pass and competed with the enemy for the pass. The enemy defended their position with danger, and the Red Army launched a fierce attack. After a bloody battle, the Red Army defeated a division of the Guizhou warlord Wang Jialie's troops stationed here, crushed two enemy counterattacks on Loushanguan, captured Loushanguan, and achieved victory in the battle of Loushanguan, known as the "Great Victory of Loushanguan" in history. Subsequently, the Red Army occupied Zunyi City again, and the momentum was unstoppable. After the battle, the Red Army annihilated and defeated two divisions and eight regiments of the Kuomintang army in Tongzi, Loushanguan, and Zunyi, achieving the largest victory since the Long March of the Central Red Army, greatly inspiring the Red Army's fighting spirit. The great victory of Loushanguan is a brilliant chapter in Mao Zedong's miraculous work of "crossing the Red River four times". I have stood at the battle site of Loushanguan more than once, imagining what kind of battle it would be. Using language to fully describe the heroism and hardships of war is clearly inadequate. So, let me tell two stories. The first one is a story about the frontline of battle, about Mao Zedong and Zhong Chibing. During the most intense battle at Loushanguan, 21-year-old Political Commissar Zhong Chibing of the 12th Regiment of the Red Third Army waved his big sword and led the team to charge. In this battle, Zhong Chibing was hit in the right calf by enemy bullets, causing blood to gush out. However, he continued to command the battle regardless of the wound. Due to the worsening of his injury, he must undergo amputation surgery. Without anesthesia and medical equipment, the military doctor could only use a broken half carpenter's saw to cut bones and a wooden knife to cut meat... Later, Zhong Chibing's wound became infected and had to undergo two more amputations, losing his right leg. After the heroic story of Zhong Chibing spread, Mao Zedong exclaimed with emotion: In ancient times, Guan Yunchang scraped his bones to treat poison, and now Zhong Chibing saw his legs with a hacksaw. Mao Zedong also came specifically to visit him, praising his heroic spirit of fighting tirelessly, and humorously comforting him, saying: We should set up a stone tablet at Loushan Pass, with the words "Zhong Chibing lost one leg here.". Zhong Chibing was infected by Mao Zedong's heroic romanticism and laughed, saying, Chairman, I still have to follow the troops on the Long March. The second story is about battle decision-making. The Central Red Army crossed the Chishui River twice, giving Chiang Kai shek a sudden "rebound". Chiang Kai shek drew two "knives" in response to this move: one was the "Wu Qiwei Column" and the other was the "Zhou Hunyuan Column", both of which were Chiang Kai shek's legitimate troops. From a strategic perspective, Mao Zedong's intention was to launch a surprise attack on Loushanguan and then occupy Zunyi City, aiming to break out of the enemy's heavy encirclement and suppression. Chiang Kai shek's response was to defend Loushanguan and Zunyi, with a "central flowering" and encirclement from all sides. The situation faced by the Central Red Army at this time was extremely tense. If there was a slight mistake, it would be "just jumping out of the wolf's den and then falling into a tiger's den.". At that time, it was like preparing one table for a banquet, and as a result, three tables of guests arrived. Wang Jialie's table was not a concern for the Red Army, and Chiang Kai shek did not consider him a "trump card". But when Wu Qiwei's column and Zhou Hunyuan's column

Edit:Luo yu Responsible editor:Wang er dong

Special statement: if the pictures and texts reproduced or quoted on this site infringe your legitimate rights and interests, please contact this site, and this site will correct and delete them in time. For copyright issues and website cooperation, please contact through outlook new era

Recommended Reading Change it