Summer refreshing eating and drinking guide, "foodies" please check


Tips for eating seasonal fruits at ease Did you do it right? Summer is the season for a large number of fruits to appear on the market, including apricots, litchi, watermelon, melon, Hami melon, durian, banana, cherizi, etc. the taste, shape and size are better than those of out of season fruits, which can not only provide rich nutrients for the body, but also quench thirst and produce saliva, bringing different taste buds stimulation and experience. Evidence based medicine research has found that adequate fruit intake every day can maintain good health, improve obesity, effectively reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, and protect against digestive tract cancers such as esophageal cancer. But did you really eat the right fruit? How should fruit be preserved? After a long time of fruit storage Antioxidant components are easy to decompose The core recommendation of the dietary guidelines for Chinese residents (2022) points out that eating fruits every day ensures the intake of 200-350g fresh fruits every day, and fruit juice cannot replace fresh fruits. Fruit is an important part of a balanced diet. Its rich organic acids and aromatic substances can enhance appetite and help digestion. The choice of fruit focuses on "fresh". Fresh seasonal fruits are bright in color. Like fresh and living plants, they are still carrying out plant physiological activities such as respiration and maturation. They have high water content, rich nutrition and fresh taste. If the fruit is placed too long, its nutrition will be greatly reduced. First of all, the moisture of the fruit will be lost over time, and the taste will become worse; Secondly, the nutrients and sugars will also change greatly, especially some antioxidant components, which are easy to decompose; Finally, fruits that have been put for a long time will shrivel and affect the eating experience. Then, it is very practical to master certain fruit storage methods. It is suggested to decide whether to put fruits in the refrigerator according to the classification. Tropical fruits, such as mango and banana, should not be put in the refrigerator, otherwise they are easy to be frostbitten and can be stored at room temperature; Fruits such as grapes, strawberries and blueberries need to be stored in the refrigerator separately and eaten within 2-3 days as far as possible; As for fruits that are more durable, such as apples, pears, oranges, oranges and other fruits, you can put them in a cool and ventilated place without putting them in the refrigerator, but they should not be stored for a long time. They are easy to dry and volatilize water, which will affect the taste. Pesticide residues in fruits are inevitable Alkaline water can remove organic phosphorus on the surface of fruits Pesticides are an important part of modern agricultural production and belong to toxic and harmful substances. The toxicity of pesticides needs to be based on a certain dose. The presence of pesticide residues does not necessarily mean that they are harmful to human body. National standards and regulations will limit the residues of pesticides in food to ensure food safety. However, due to unscientific and nonstandard pesticide application methods, the chemical characteristics of pesticides and the environmental migration of pesticide pollution, pesticide residues in fruits are inevitable. Therefore, the fruit should be properly treated and cleaned before eating, which will help to reduce the limit of pesticide residues. Method 1: water washing immersion method + alkaline water immersion method Washing is the basic method to remove other dirt and residual pesticides from fruits. Generally, wash the surface dirt with water first, otherwise it is equivalent to immersing the fruit in diluted pesticides, and then immerse it in clear water for no less than 10 minutes. Fruit and vegetable detergent can increase the dissolution of pesticides, so a small amount of fruit and vegetable detergent can be added during soaking, and wash it with flowing water for 2-3 times after soaking. Organophosphorus pesticides are difficult to dissolve in water, but can decompose rapidly in alkaline environment. Therefore, water washing and soaking method is not suitable for organophosphorus pesticide residues on the surface of fruits. The correct method to remove organophosphorus pesticide residues on the surface of fruits: first wash the surface dirt, soak it in alkaline water (generally add 5-10g alkaline surface in 500ml water) for 5-15 minutes, and then rinse it with clean water for 3-5 times. Method 2: peel it, but don't mix it after peeling The amount of pesticides on the surface of fruits is relatively large, and peeling is a better method to remove residual pesticides. It is used for apples, pears, kiwifruit, etc., but be careful not to mix peeled vegetables, melons and fruits to avoid re pollution. Method 3: wash with rice washing water Proper direct sunlight and washing with rice washing water can also partially degrade pesticide residues on the surface of fruits. Diabetics grasp the health principle You can still eat fruit at ease Some people with hyperglycemia or diabetes think that fruits contain high sugar, which will cause blood sugar to soar after eating, and they always stay away from fruits. This is not the case. In addition to glucose, fructose and sucrose, a considerable part of carbohydrates in fruits exist in the form of dietary fiber, such as gum, cellulose, hemicellulose, etc. Because dietary fiber has the function of delaying the absorption of glucose, the effect of fruit on the increase of blood glucose is smaller than expected. In addition, fruits contain a large number of substances that other foods do not contain or lack, such as organic acids, aromatic compounds, pectin, antioxidant components, etc., which have irreplaceable effects on people with high blood glucose to satisfy their appetite, enhance their resistance, and eliminate free radicals. Therefore, even if blood glucose is high, don't blindly reject fruits. You can choose fruits according to the following principles. 1. Choose fruits according to glycemic index and disease condition People with high blood glucose choose fruits mainly by referring to the sugar content and blood glucose production index of fruits, fasting blood glucose lt; 7.0 mmol/l, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose lt; 11.1mmol/l, when the condition is stable, you can choose fruits with slightly higher sugar content (10%-13%), such as apples, pears, peaches, oranges, cherries, etc; For patients with high blood glucose and unstable condition, choose fruits with low sugar content (lt; 10%), such as apricot, plum, grapefruit, loquat, papaya, lemon, etc. The higher the GI value that diabetes patients are concerned about, that is, the glycemic index (glycemic index), the greater the impact on blood glucose. It should be noted that those with high glycemic index should choose glycemic index lt; 55 fruit. In addition to plums and grapefruits mentioned above, fruits that meet this standard include peaches (glycemic index 28), apples (glycemic index 36), grapes (glycemic index 43), oranges (glycemic index 43), etc. Jujube has a sugar index of 104, watermelon has a sugar index of 72, pineapple has a sugar index of 66, and raisins have a sugar index of 64, all of which are relatively high and need to be eaten carefully; Fruits at the critical point, such as mango (glycemic index 55) and kiwi (glycemic index 52), also need to be eaten carefully. 2. Control consumption and frequency Those with high blood glucose should control their daily fruit intake at 50-150 grams. Generally, fresh fruits contain 50kcal / 100g of energy. If you eat more in a day, you should reduce the intake of staple foods accordingly. If you eat 200g apples (about 100kcal of energy) a day, you should reduce 30g from the staple food of the whole day to avoid excessive total energy intake. It is best to choose fruit between meals. After hunger or physical activity, eating fruits can not only prevent hypoglycemia, but also provide certain calories and nutrients for the body. The method of eating less fruits for many times can be adopted to avoid eating a large number of fruits at one time, which will increase the burden of gastrointestinal tract and rapidly increase blood glucose. It is best to eat fruit 2-3 times a day, with about 50g each time. (outlook new era)

Edit:Yuanqi Tang Responsible editor:Xiao Yu


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